Crime Analysis Tool Reference

The Crime Analysis solution delivers a set of capabilities to help you manage and query incident data, conduct tactical, strategic, and investigative analysis, and share web-based and hardcopy information products with decision-makers.

In this topic, you’ll learn how to use the Crime Analysis solution by exploring the Crime Analysis navigating the Crime Analysis add-in, and reviewing the Repeat and Near Repeat tools.

Crime Analysis tools

The Crime Analysis Solution contains many tools to support key analytical functions to manage data, select crime incidents, conduct tactical and strategic analysis, investigate crime patterns and share information with other law enforcement personnel. These tools are accessed using the Crime Analysis tab and ribbon which is automatically added to your projects when you install the Crime Analysis add-in. The following sections contain a list of the tool groups in the ribbon with details for each tool in chronological order according to a typical crime analysis process.

Note: You will need to ensure the Crime Analysis add-in is installed before you can review the Crime Analysis tools. See Configure Crime Analysis for more information.

Data Management tools

Crime Analysts can import data from disparate record systems in order to perform spatial analysis using ArcGIS Pro. In many cases, the data must also be geocoded and prepared for analysis by appending information about police operational boundaries, transforming date values, or other transformation functions. The Data Management group includes a series of tools that can be used for manual or automatic data import, geocoding, and enhancing of data for use in crime mapping and spatial analysis.

The following tools and commands are included in the Data Management group of the Crime Analysis ribbon.

Name Description 

Add Data

An ArcGIS Pro menu command that references data management tools that adds data to the map.

Add Graphics Layer

An ArcGIS Pro menu command that provides a way to include simple notations on a map or layout that highlight particular areas or label places.

Import Records

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox that converts a nonspatial table to point features based on x,y-coordinates or street addresses and updates an existing dataset with the new or updated record information from the table.

Convert Time Field

An ArcGIS Pro Data Management tool that converts time values stored in a string or numeric field to a date field.

Feature To 3D By Time

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox that creates a 3D feature class using date values from input features.

Convert Coordinate Notation

An ArcGIS Pro Data Management tool that converts coordinate notations contained on one or two fields from one notation format to another.

Add Date Attributes

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox that adds fields containing date or time properties from an input date field, for example, day full name, day of the month, month, and year.

Join Attributes From Polygon

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox that joins attributes from input polygon features to input point features.

Enrich

An ArcGIS Pro Analysis tool that enriches data by adding demographic and landscape facts about the people and places that surround or are inside data locations.

Selection

Before applying spatial analysis methods, crime analysts use queries to select subsets of data related to their topic of analysis. The Selection group in the ribbon includes a series of tools to perform spatial, temporal, or location-based queries of your data.

The following tools and commands are included in the Selection group of the Crime Analysis ribbon.

Name Description 

Explore

An ArcGIS Pro command that allows you to explore maps and scenes, you can zoom in and out, move around, and in the case of scenes, move up, down, and look around.

Select

An ArcGIS Pro commands that provide interactive feature selection involves clicking a single feature in the view or digitizing a shape to select a set of features.

Select By Attributes

An ArcGIS Pro Data Management tool that adds, updates, or removes a selection on a layer or table view based on an attribute query.

Select By Location

An ArcGIS Pro Data Management tool that selects features in a layer based on a spatial relationship to features in another dataset.

Select Layer By Date and Time

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox used to select records based on date and time ranges or date properties, for example, single date, time range, time period, days of the week, month, or year.

Attributes

An ArcGIS Pro command that displays the Attribute pane.

Clear

An ArcGIS Pro command that clears the current selection in the active map.

Layer From Selection

An ArcGIS Pro command that creates on new layer based on a selected set of features in an existing layer.

Analysis Tools

Crime Analysts perform many types of analyses to support the needs of law enforcement decision-makers in their organization. The Analysis Tools group includes a gallery of tools that can be used to perform a variety of hotspot detection techniques and other spatial methods that can be applied as part of tactical or strategic crime analysis projects. The gallery also includes tools to apply spatial methods in support of investigations, like cell phone analysis, crime series sequencing, or motor vehicle theft to recovery linking.

The following tools and commands are included in the Analysis Tools group of the Crime Analysis ribbon.

Name Description 

Summary Statistics

An ArcGIS Pro Analysis tool that calculates summary statistics for field(s) in a table.

Buffer

An ArcGIS Pro Analysis tool that creates buffer polygons around input features to a specified distance.

80-20 Analysis

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox used to conduct an 80/20 analysis of features and determines cluster locations by creating a graduated symbol layer based on the number of incidents occurring at each location.

Summarize Incident Count

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox used to create a feature class with coincident point counts. Coincident point counts for line and point features are determined by a specified maximum distance. Point counts for polygon features are determine by whether point features or portions of features overlap with the polygon feature.

Summarize Percent Change

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox used to calculate the percent change for features that correspond with point features representing two equal comparison time periods.

Optimized Hotspot

An ArcGIS Pro Spatial Statistics tool that creates a map of statistically significant hot and cold spots using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic.

Kernel Density

An ArcGIS Pro Spatial Analyst tool that calculates a magnitude-per-unit area from point or polyline features using a kernel function to fit a smoothly tapered surface to each point or polyline. This tool requires a Spatial Analyst license.

Minus

An ArcGIS Pro Spatial Analyst tool that subtracts the value of the second input raster from the value of the first input raster on a cell-by-cell basis.

Create Space Time Cube

An ArcGIS Pro Space Time Pattern Mining tool that summarizes a set of points into a netCDF data structure by aggregating them into space-time bins.

Emerging Hot Spot

An ArcGIS Pro Space Time Pattern Mining tool that identifies trends in the clustering of point densities.

Colocation Analysis

An ArcGIS Pro Spatial Statistics tool that measures local patterns of spatial association, or colocation, between two categories of point features using the colocation quotient statistic.

Density-based Clustering

An ArcGIS Pro Spatial Statistics tool that finds clusters of point features within surrounding noise based on their spatial distribution.

Points To Tracks Segments

An ArcGIS Pro Spatial Statistics tool that converts a series of output paths from time-enabled sequences of input point data, such as GPS points.

Generate Origin-Destination Links

An ArcGIS Pro Spatial Statistics tool that generates connecting lines from origin features to destination features. This is often referred to as a spider diagram.

Cell Site Records to Feature Class

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and safety tool used to creates cell site points and sector polygons based on input latitude, longitude, azimuth, beamwidth, and radius information from a cell site table.

Cell Phone Records to Feature Class

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox used to imports cell phone records from wireless network providers and associates those records with a cell site and sector feature classes as generated by the Cell Site Records To Feature Class tool based on identifier fields.

Generate Call Links

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox used to creates line features that represent the call links between phones, using cell site points or cell site antenna sectors, based on the start date and time of the call.

Find Space Time Matches

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox that identifies matches between two feature classes based on proximity, time extent, or both.

Generate Sector Lines

An ArcGIS Pro Crime Analysis and Safety toolbox used to create line features that represent the extent of cell site antenna sectors.

Dissolve

An ArcGIS Pro Data Management tool aggregates features based on specified attributes.

Export Near Repeat Calculator Table

A Repeat and Near Repeat tool that creates a CSV file in the format required by the Near Repeat Calculator from an input feature class. The Near Repeat Calculator is a tool published by Temple University for examining the statistical significance of repeat and near repeat patterns in a dataset.

Repeat and Near Repeat Classification

A Repeat and Near Repeat tool that identify areas at risk of repeat and near repeat incidents by specifying the spatial and temporal range of influence of past incidents.

Calculate Prediction Zones

A Repeat and Near Repeat tool that identify areas at risk of repeat and near repeat incidents by specifying the spatial and temporal range of influence of past incidents.

Information Products 

After the analysis is complete, Crime Analysts often prepare hard copy maps and web-based information products to help their organizations make data-driven decisions. The Information Products group includes a series of tools to create information products for analysis consumers, including link charts, hardcopy maps, charts, and reports, and publishing of maps and layers to organizational web GIS portals.

The following tools and commands are included in the Information Products group of the Crime Analysis ribbon.

Name Description 

Create Chart

An ArcGIS Pro command that creates a chart to visualize categories, distribution, change and relationships in your data.

New Link Chart 

An ArcGIS Pro command used to generate a link chart to visualize relationships between entities in your data and is a complementary view to the map.

New Report 

An ArcGIS Pro command used to generate a report to share a well-formatted, multipage representation of your data. A report can contain a tabular list of attributes, summary information, or both.

New Layout

An ArcGIS Pro command that creates a new layout and add it to the project.

Web Map

An ArcGIS Pro command used to share the active map as a web map to your organization.

Web Layer

An ArcGIS Pro command used to share all data layers in the active map as a new web layer to your organization.

Repeat and Near Repeat Analysis Tools

Repeat Victimization is an empirically observed phenomenon where when a location becomes the victim of a specific type of crime, that location has an elevated risk of subsequent victimization, a risk which drops precipitously over time. A corollary phenomena is known as Near-Repeat Victimization, whereby locations immediately around a location that has been victimized are at elevated risk, a level that drops both as time passes, and as the distance from the originating victim increases. Repeat and Near Repeat patterns have been observed across a wide variety of crime types, are believed to be spatial artifacts of serial offending behaviors, and thus have important implications for crime prevention and investigations.

The Crime Analysis solution includes three custom geoprocessing tools to support analyses relative to Repeat and Near Repeat Victimization patterns. The Export Near Repeat Calculator Table tool can be used with Temple University’s Near Repeat Calculator to identify statistically significant patterns of Repeat and Near Repeat Victimization. The Near Repeat Classification tool can be used to identify historical patterns of repeat and near-repeat victimization, which can support investigative efforts to connect and clear cases that were not otherwise known to be part of a pattern. The Calculate Prediction Zones tool can be used to generate daily tactical crime risk predictions based on Repeat Victimization and Near-Repeat Victimization risk for recent crime locations. These risk predictions can be used to inform police operational strategies for crime reduction.

The tools in the Crime Analysis solution related to Repeat and Near Repeat Victimization (Export Near Repeat Calculator Table, Repeat and Near Repeat Classification, and Calculate Prediction Zones) were developed in cooperation with Spencer Chainey, Ph.D., Associate Professor in Security and Crime Science at the Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime Science, University College London.

Export Near Repeat Calculator Table Tool

The Near Repeat Calculator is a tool published by Temple University for examining the statistical significance of repeat and near repeat patterns in a dataset. When a statistically significant repeat or near repeat pattern is found, the spatial and temporal bandwidths of the pattern can then be used as parameters for analyses involving the Repeat and Near Repeat Classification Tool and the Calculate Prediction Zones tool. of This tool creates a comma-separated values (CSV) file in the format required by the Near Repeat Calculator from an input feature class.

Usage

  • Input features must have a date field.
  • The output comma-separated values (CSV) file does not contain any field headers as these are not supported by the Near Repeat Calculator. The output fields are, in order: X, Y, Date.

Syntax

ExportNearRepeatCalculatorTable_crime (Input_Feature_Class, Output_Table, Date_Field)

Parameter ExplanationData Type 

Output Table

Specify the path and file name of output comma-separated values (CSV) file.

File

Date Field

The field in the input feature class containing the date on which each incident occurred. If the date of the incident spans a range (for example, date information is recorded in two fields representing the from and to dates), choose the date field you consider to be most appropriate. This will usually be the date at the beginning of the date range.

Field

Licensing information:

  • ArcGIS Desktop Basic: Yes
  • ArcGIS Desktop Standard: Yes
  • ArcGIS Advanced: Yes

Repeat and Near Repeat Classification tool

Use a series of distance and time values to classify incidents as originators, repeats, or near-repeats, and to identify potential spatial and temporal relationships between incidents.

Usage

  • The Input Features must be a point feature class or shape file with a date field, representing the locations of incidents.
  • The tool will use all points with date values. Incidents without valid dates will be excluded and a warning message will print to the screen listing the skipped incidents.
  • This tool will honor a selected set of features. When the Input Features contain a selection, only the selected features will be considered when classifying features and building connections.
  • Incidents are classified as O (Originator), NR (near-repeat), or R (repeat) according to their proximity to each other in space and time using each combination of the specified spatial and temporal band values, and the specified repeat distance.
  • Incidents are classified as originators if they are the originator of at least one other incident and have no preceding incidents within the current spatial and temporal ranges.
  • Incidents are classified as near-repeat incidents when they follow a previous repeat, near-repeat, or originating incident within the current spatial and temporal ranges, and do not meet the criteria to be classified as a repeat incident.
  • Incidents are classified as repeat incidents when they occur within the specified repeat distance and the current temporal range. An incident that meets the requirements for both a repeat and a near-repeat incident is classified as a repeat.
  • Incidents that do not meet the criteria for any of the above are left unclassified.
  • This tool creates the following three outputs:
    • A copy of the input incident features with classification fields added. These fields are populated with the classification values for each incident within each set to spatial and temporal ranges. For example, if a repeat distance of 1 map unit (Feet), spatial bands of 100 and 200 map units (Feet), and temporal bands of 7 and 14 days are specified, the tool will append 6 fields with the following field names and aliases:
      • sb0tb1 (1 ft / 7 Days): Classification of incidents that are originators of repeat incidents occurring no more than 7 days later, and incidents that occurred within the repeat distance and 7 days of a previous incident.
      • sb0tb1 (1 ft / 14 Days): Classification of incidents that are originators of repeat incidents occurring no more than 14 days later, and incidents that occurred within the repeat distance and 14 days of a previous incident.
      • sb1tb1 (100 ft / 7 Days): Classification of incidents that are originators of repeat and near-repeat incidents occurring no more than 7 days later, and incidents that occurred within 100 map units and 7 days of a previous incident.
      • sb1tb2 (100 ft / 14 Days): Classification of incidents that are originators of repeat and near-repeat incidents occurring no more than 14 days later, and incidents that occurred within 100 map units and 14 days of a previous incident.
      • sb2tb1 (200 ft / 7 Days): Classification of incidents that are originators of repeat and near-repeat incidents occurring no more than 7 days later, and incidents that occurred within 200 map units and 7 days of a previous incident.
      • sb2tb2 (200 ft / 14 Days): Classification of incidents that are originators of repeat and near-repeat incidents occurring no more than 14 days later, and incidents that occurred within 200 map units and 14 days of a previous incident.
      • The tool also appends a field called ZVALUE with values representing the number of days between each incident and the smallest date value in the dataset. These values can be used to visualize the time sequence of incidents in ArcGIS Pro so that oldest incidents appear near the ground and more recent incidents appear further from the ground.
    • A line feature class that is populated with z-enabled line features representing the potential relationships between repeat and near-repeat incidents and their originators. The z values for each vertex correspond to the ZVALUE field value for the incident that occurs at that vertex.
    • A comma-separated values (CSV) file summary report with the number of incidents processed, the counts and proportions of incidents that fall within each spatial and temporal band combination, and the estimated half-life and half-distance values which can be used as inputs for the Calculate Prediction Zones tool.
  • All distances are calculated using geodesic measurements.

Syntax

RepeatNearRepeatClassification_crime (Input_Feature_Class, Output_Incident_Points, Output_Incident_Connection_Lines, Output_Summary_Report_Location, Date_Field, Repeat_Incident_Distance, Spatial_Bands, Temporal_Bands)

Parameter ExplanationData Type 

Input Feature Class

Feature class containing points representing the location of incidents to classify. The data contained in the features class will typically cover a long time period (e.g., one year). The feature class must have a date field (in date format) and all features must have date values.

Feature Layer

Output Incident Points

Output feature class containing calculated classification values.

Feature Layer or Feature Class

Output Summary Report Location

The results from the analysis of repeats and near repeats will be written into a Summary report (csv file format) for review. The report can be found in this folder after the tool has completed successfully. The results are also written to the Messages section of the Results window.

Folder

Date Field

The field in the input feature class containing the date on which each incident occurred. If the date of the incident spans a range (e.g., date information is recorded in two fields representing the from and to dates), choose the date field you consider to be most appropriate. This will usually be the date at the beginning of the date range. Values in the date field are used to calculate the number of days between each incident.

Field

Repeat Incident Distance

Maximum distance in the units of the input feature class where adjacent incidents are considered repeats rather than near repeats. A value of 0 is exact to the accuracy of the coordinate system. If the geocoding of the input feature class is likely to very slightly vary it is recommended this value is set to 1 (i.e., incidents will be classified as repeats if the distance between them is less than or equal to 1 map unit).

Double

Spatial Bands

Distance in the units of the input feature class to classify near incidents. Multiple bands can be entered. For example, bands of 200m and 400m will classify features that are located up to and including 200m from a previous incident, and up to and including 400m of a previous incident.

Multiple Value

Temporal Bands

Number of days to classify near incidents. Multiple bands can be entered. For example, bands of 7, 14 and 21 days will classify features that took place up to and including 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days of a previous incident.

Multiple Value

Licensing information:

  • ArcGIS Desktop Basic: No
  • ArcGIS Desktop Standard: No
  • ArcGIS Advanced: Yes

Calculate Prediction Zones tool

Identify areas at risk of repeat and near repeat incidents by specifying the spatial and temporal range of influence of past incidents.

Usage

  • The Input Features must be a point feature class or shape file with a date field, representing the locations of incidents.
  • The tool will use all points with date values in the Temporal Range of Influence preceding the Initial Processing Date. Features with date values outside this range and features with null or invalid date values will not be processed.
  • This tool will honor a selected set of features. When the Input Features contain a selection, only the selected features will be considered when building the prediction zones.
  • Incidents that occur closer in time to the Initial Processing Date will have more influence over the prediction zones than older incidents. Areas nearer to incidents will be considered to have a greater risk of future incidents, up to the Spatial Range of Influence. Use the Spatial Half Distance and Temporal Half Life parameters to modify the rate of decay of influence.
  • The following fields are populated in the output feature class:
    • CREATEDATE: Text field populated with the date and time the features are created.
    • STARTDATE: The Initial Processing Date, or the calculated date if TODAY or YESTERDAY is the input value.
    • TIMEBAND: The Temporal Range of Influence used to generate the features.
    • SPACEBAND: The Spatial Range of Influence used to generate the features.
    • RISKRANGE: The classification of risk for the area defined by that polygon. Higher values have a higher level of risk ang lower values have a lower value of risk based on the location and dates of nearby incidents.
  • This tool creates up to two outputs:
    • A raster representation of the levels of risk over the area covered by the incidents.
    • Polygons generated by binning the raster values into a number of Risk Ranges are appended to the Output Prediction Zones Feature Class as described above.
  • While storing the output raster in a geodatabase is supported, it is recommended to store the raster in a folder rather than a geodatabase, especially if this tool will be run as a scheduled task.
  • All distances are calculated using geodesic measurements.
  • This tool requires the Spatial Analyst extension.

Syntax

CalculatePredictionZones_crime (Input_Features, Output_Prediction_Zones_Raster, Output_Prediction_Zones_Feature_Class, Date_Field, Initial_Processing_Date, Spatial_Range_of_Influence, Spatial_Half_Distance, Temporal_Range_of_Influence, Temporal_Half_Life, Risk_Calculation_Method, Number_of_Risk_Ranges)

Parameter ExplanationData Type 

Input Features

Feature class containing points representing the location of incidents and from which prediction zones will be calculated. The feature class must have a date field (in date format) and all features must have date values.

Feature Layer

Point Join Features

Point features coincident with the input polygon or line features.

Feature Layer

Output Prediction Zones Raster

Output prediction zone raster.

Raster Layer

Output Prediction Zones Feature Class

Output feature class with polygons representing the prediction zones.

Feature Class or Feature Layer

Date Field

The field in the input feature class containing the date on which each incident occurred. If the date of the incident spans a range (for example, date information is recorded in two fields representing the from and to dates), choose the date field you consider to be most appropriate. This will usually be the date at the beginning of the date range. Values in the date field are used to calculate the level of future risk based on a combination of when the incident occurred, the Initial Processing Date and the temporal decay in risk (determined from the Temporal Range of Influence and the Temporal Half Life).

Field

Initial Processing Date

The date to use from the Input Feature Class for creating the prediction zones.

Date

Spatial Range of Influence

This value determines the size of the prediction zones around each incident (in the units of the coordinate system of the Input Feature Class). The value refers to the maximum distance from an incident that the incident is estimated to have on influencing the risk of future incidents taking place. Additionally, this value can be based on the area around an incident that is considered to be practical for resource targeting and deployment (for example, the area to which additional patrols are targeted).

Double

Spatial Half Distance

The distance from an incident at which the risk is estimated to be half that of another incident taking place (a near-repeat). This value is used to calculate the exponential rate of decay in the spatial risk of a near-repeat incident and must be lower than the value for the Spatial Range of Influence. Distance units are the units of the coordinate system of the input feature class. A useful initial value to apply is half the value of the Spatial Range of Influence.

Double

Temporal Range of Influence

This value refers to the number of days before the Initial Processing Date that incidents are estimated to have an influence on the risk of future incidents taking place. More recent incidents have the greatest level of influence on future risk. Incidents that took place between the Initial Processing Date and the value for the Temporal Range of Influence are used for creating prediction zones. For example, if this value was set to 3, only incidents for the Initial Processing Date and the two days prior would be used for creating prediction zones. Incidents that took place 3 days ago would have less of an influence on the risk of future incidents than those that took place on the Initial Processing Date.

Double

Temporal Half Life

The number of days before the Initial Processing Date on which the risk is estimated to be half that of further incidents taking place immediately after the Initial Processing Date (for example, incidents that took place on the Initial Processing Date are considered to have the greatest influence on the risk of future incidents taking place. Incidents before the Initial Processing Date have less of an influence on future risk). This value is used to calculate the exponential rate of decay in the temporal risk of a repeat and near-repeat incident and must be lower than the value for the Temporal Range of Influence. A useful initial value to apply is half the value of the Temporal Range of Influence.

Double

Risk Calculation Method

Choose the method for calculating the predictive risk.

'CUMULATIVE' (default) creates prediction zones where the value of each cell is the sum of any prediction zone cells that overlap.

'MAXIMUM' creates prediction zones where the value of each cell is the maximum value of any prediction zone cells that overlap

String

Number of Risk Ranges

Integer value representing the number of ranges that will be used in the polygon version of the output for representing the variation in predicted risk (for example, if this value was set to 2, two Risk Ranges would determine areas of primary risk from areas of secondary risk).

Long

Licensing information:

  • ArcGIS Desktop Basic: Requires Spatial Analyst
  • ArcGIS Desktop Standard: Requires Spatial Analyst
  • ArcGIS Advanced: Requires Spatial Analyst