Data Enrichment creates new polygon features with demographic, business, economic, or landscape attributes that describe the people living in the area each polygon represents. Behind the scenes ArcGIS uses a granular point dataset as the basis for enriching these polygons with a wide variety of available variables. These points represent the locations of where people live.
Where people live is the best basis to allocate demographic and economic variables because people spend their money from their homes usually for the benefit of those living there. Esri makes data from many providers available via data enrichment in 137 countries.
The illustration below shows what happens when someone enriches a polygon representing a 1-km ring around a store's location and chooses some variables to describe the people living in that ring. The points representing where people live within the ring are selected, as are detailed polygons representing census or postal code geographies are also selected. The selected polygons have attributes for all variables available. From these selected features the proper proportions of each variable selected are apportioned to the ring.
Learn how the ArcGIS data apportionment works to create this new data.
While enrichment is available in many countries, the data sources for the points and enrichment variables varies by country. Some countries, like the U.S., Japan, Australia, The Netherlands, and Canada are rich in variables that describe, in detail, demographic characteristics and economic behaviors of their citizens. Other countries have fewer variables based on coarser census or postal code geographies. Thus, the reliability of results varies by county and even by location within countries. Within the results of each enrichment operation, the metadata will include reliability statistics for each country with ratings from 1.0 to 5.0, where 1.0 is the best.
Learn about apportionment reliability.
Enrichment is available through the ArcGIS GeoEnrichment Service, which is used by the Enrich Layer tools in ArcGIS Online, ArcGIS Pro, Insights for ArcGIS, ArcGIS Business Analyst, and other ArcGIS applications. The GeoEnrichment Service is also available in the ArcGIS REST API allowing application programmers to embed enrichment into their applications.