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Find hot spots

Even random spatial patterns exhibit some degree of clustering. In addition, our eyes and brains naturally try to find patterns even when none exist. Consequently, it can be difficult to know if the patterns in your data are the result of real spatial processes at work or just the result of random chance. This is why researchers and analysts use statistical methods like Find Hot Spots (Getis-Ord Gi*) to quantify spatial patterns. When you do find statistically significant clustering in your data, you have valuable information. Knowing where and when clustering occurs can provide important clues about the processes promoting the patterns you're seeing. Knowing that residential burglaries, for example, are consistently higher in particular neighborhoods is vital information if you need to design effective prevention strategies, allocate scarce police resources, initiate neighborhood watch programs, authorize in-depth criminal investigations, or identify potential suspects.

  1. Click the Contents tab to display the Contents pane.
  2. On the Contents pane, click the point layer you want to analyze.
  3. Click Analysis Tools > Find hot spots.
  4. In the Hot spot analysis pane, select the layer in the drop-down list.
  5. Under Find hot and cold spots, choose how you want the analysis to be performed.
    • Choose by point densities to perform the analysis based on the points in the layer.
    • Choose by attribute values to perform based on an attribute value of the layer.

      Use the drop down to select the attribute value you want to use

  6. To restrict the analysis to the map area displayed in the viewer, check the Restrict analysis to the map's current map extents check box. To apply the analysis to the entire map, uncheck the check box.
  7. In the Result layer name field, type a name to assign to the new layer.
  8. Check the Save the results check box if you want the results to be saved.
  9. Click Run analysis.

    When the analysis is complete, a new layer is created and appears in the Contents pane. For the points or the areas in this result layer, the darker the red or blue colors appear, the more confident you can be that clustering is not the result of random chance. Points or areas displayed in beige, on the other hand, are not part of any statistically significant cluster; the spatial pattern associated with these features could very likely be the result of random chance. Sometimes the results of your analysis will indicate that there aren't any statistically significant clusters at all. This is important information to have. When a spatial pattern is random, there are no clues about underlying causes. In these cases, all of the features in the results layer will be beige. When you do find statistically significant clustering, however, the locations where clustering occurs are important clues about what might be creating the clustering. Finding statistically significant spatial clustering of cancer associated with certain environmental toxins, for example, can lead to policies and actions designed to protect people. Similarly, finding cold spots of childhood obesity associated with schools promoting after-school sports programs can provide strong justification for encouraging these types of programs more broadly.

    For technical details on how the Hot Spot tool works, see How Hot Spot Analysis works.

    For more information about spatial statistics, see How Hot Spot Analysis (Getis-Ord Gi*) works.