ArcGIS Maps for Office works directly with an ArcGIS Online organization or with a ArcGIS Enterprise instance. Although users can view the map without signing in, functionality is limited. Logged-out users can view and navigate the map, and any changes to a dataset that were previously used to create a map will be reflected in pop-ups and, in some cases, the map's appearance. Signing in to ArcGIS allows the ArcGIS Maps for Office add-in to connect to the platform and enable full functionality of the map.
The authentication method used to sign in is determined by the way you have set up security features for your ArcGIS Online organization or ArcGIS Enterprise instance. ArcGIS Maps for Office requires no specific steps to implement the authentication methods supported by ArcGIS Online or ArcGIS Enterprise. For details about general configuration settings, see Configure ArcGIS Maps for Office.